Source code for woob.browser.pages

# Copyright(C) 2014 Romain Bignon
# This file is part of woob.
# woob is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
# woob is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
# along with woob. If not, see <>.

from __future__ import annotations

import codecs
import importlib
import re
import warnings
from typing import (
    Dict, Callable, List, Any, Iterator, Type, ClassVar, TYPE_CHECKING
from collections import OrderedDict
from functools import wraps
from io import BytesIO, StringIO
from urllib.parse import urljoin
from ast import literal_eval
import csv
from datetime import datetime

import lxml
import requests

from woob.browser.filters.base import _Filter
from woob.exceptions import ParseError
from import json, mini_jsonpath
from import getLogger
from import decompress_pdf

from .exceptions import LoggedOut

    from woob.browser.browsers import Browser

[docs]class NextPage(Exception): """ Exception used for example in a Page to tell PagesBrowser.pagination to go on the next page. See :meth:`PagesBrowser.pagination` or decorator :func:`pagination`. """ def __init__(self, request: str | Page): super().__init__() self.request = request
[docs]class Page: """ Represents a page. Encoding can be forced by setting the :attr:`ENCODING` class-wide attribute, or by passing an `encoding` keyword argument, which overrides :attr:`ENCODING`. Finally, it can be manually changed by assigning a new value to :attr:`encoding` instance attribute. A unicode version of the response content is accessible in :attr:`text`, decoded with specified :attr:`encoding`. :param browser: browser used to go on the page :type browser: :class:`woob.browser.browsers.Browser` :param response: response object :type response: :class:`Response` :param params: optional dictionary containing parameters given to the page (see :class:`woob.browser.url.URL`) :type params: :class:`dict` :param encoding: optional parameter to force the encoding of the page, overrides :attr:`ENCODING` :type encoding: :class:`str` """ ENCODING: ClassVar[str | None] = None """ Force a page encoding. It is recommended to use None for autodetection. """ is_here: None | bool | _Filter | Callable | str = None """The condition to verify that the page corresponds to the response. This allows having different pages on equivalent or conflicting URL patterns identified using the response's method, URL, headers, or content, by defining is_here on pages associated with such patterns. This property can be defined as: * None or True, to signify that the page should be matched regardless of the response. * False, to signify that the page should not be matched regardless of the response. * A filter returning a falsy or non-falsy object, evaluated with the constructed document for the page. * A method returning a falsy or non-falsy object, evaluated with the page object directly. """ logged: bool = False """ If True, the page is in a restricted area of the website. Useful with :class:`LoginBrowser` and the :func:`need_login` decorator. """ def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs): """ Accept any arguments, necessary for AbstractPage __new__ override. AbstractPage, in its overridden __new__, removes itself from class hierarchy so its __new__ is called only once. In python 3, default (object) __new__ is then used for next instantiations but it's a slot/"fixed" version supporting only one argument (type to instanciate). """ return object.__new__(cls) def __init__( self, browser: Browser, response: requests.Response, params: None | Dict[str, str] = None, encoding: str | None = None ): self.browser = browser self.logger = getLogger(self.__class__.__name__.lower(), browser.logger) self.response = response self.url = self.response.url self.params = params # Setup encoding and build document self.forced_encoding = self.normalize_encoding(encoding or self.ENCODING) if self.forced_encoding: self.response.encoding = self.forced_encoding self.doc = self.build_doc( # Last chance to change encoding, according to :meth:`detect_encoding`, # which can be used to detect a document-level encoding declaration if not self.forced_encoding: encoding = self.detect_encoding() if encoding and encoding != self.encoding: self.response.encoding = encoding self.doc = self.build_doc( # Encoding issues are delegated to Response instance, implemented by # requests module. @property def encoding(self) -> str | None: return self.normalize_encoding(self.response.encoding) @encoding.setter def encoding(self, value: str): self.forced_encoding = value self.response.encoding = value @property def content(self) -> bytes: """ Raw content from response. """ return self.response.content @property def text(self) -> str: """ Content of the response, in str, decoded with :attr:`encoding`. """ return self.response.text @property def data(self) -> Any: """ Data passed to :meth:`build_doc`. """ return self.content
[docs] def on_load(self): """ Event called when browser loads this page. """
[docs] def on_leave(self): """ Event called when browser leaves this page. """
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> Any: """ Abstract method to be implemented by subclasses to build structured data (HTML, Json, CSV...) from :attr:`data` property. It also can be overriden in modules pages to preprocess or postprocess data. It must return an object -- that will be assigned to :attr:`doc`. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def detect_encoding(self) -> None | str: """ Override this method to implement detection of document-level encoding declaration, if any (eg. html5's <meta charset="some-charset">). """ return None
[docs] def normalize_encoding(self, encoding: str | bytes | None) -> str | None: """ Make sure we can easily compare encodings by formatting them the same way. """ if isinstance(encoding, bytes): encoding = encoding.decode('utf-8') return encoding.lower() if encoding else encoding
[docs] def absurl(self, url: str) -> str: """ Get an absolute URL from an a partial URL, relative to the Page URL """ return urljoin(self.url, url)
[docs]class FormNotFound(Exception): """ Raised when :meth:`HTMLPage.get_form` can't find a form. """
[docs]class FormSubmitWarning(UserWarning): """ A form has more than one submit element selected, and will likely generate an invalid request. """
[docs]class Form(OrderedDict): """ Represents a form of an HTML page. It is used as a dict with pre-filled values from HTML. You can set new values as strings by setting an item value. It is recommended to not use this class by yourself, but call :meth:`HTMLPage.get_form`. :param page: the page where the form is located :type page: :class:`Page` :param el: the form element on the page :param submit_el: allows you to only consider one submit button (which is what browsers do). If set to None, it takes all of them, and if set to False, it takes none. """ def __init__( self, page: Page, el: lxml.etree._Element, submit_el: lxml.etree._Element | None = None ): super().__init__() Page = page self.el: lxml.etree._Element = el self.submit_el: lxml.etree._Element | None = submit_el self.method: str = el.attrib.get('method', 'GET') self.url: str = el.attrib.get('action', page.url) str = el.attrib.get('name', '') self.req: None | requests.Request = None self.headers: None | Dict[str, str] = None submits = 0 # Find all elements of the form that will be useful to create the request for inp in el.xpath('.//input | .//select | .//textarea'): # Step 1: Ignore some elements try: name = inp.attrib['name'] except KeyError: continue # Ignore checkboxes and radios that are not selected # as they are just not present in the request instead of being empty # values. try: if inp.attrib['type'] in ('checkbox', 'radio') and 'checked' not in inp.attrib: continue except KeyError: pass # Either filter the submit buttons, or count how many we have found try: if inp.attrib['type'] == 'submit': # If we chose a submit button, ignore all others if self.submit_el is not None and inp is not self.submit_el: continue else: # Register that we have found a submit button, and that it will # be used submits += 1 except KeyError: pass # Step 2: Extract the key-value pair from the remaining elements if inp.tag == 'select': options = inp.xpath('.//option[@selected]') if len(options) == 0: options = inp.xpath('.//option') if len(options) == 0: value = '' else: value = options[0].attrib.get('value', options[0].text or '') else: value = inp.attrib.get('value', inp.text or '') # TODO check if value already exists, emit warning self[name] = value # Sanity checks if submits > 1: warnings.warn('Form has more than one submit input, you should chose the correct one', FormSubmitWarning, stacklevel=3) if self.submit_el is not None and self.submit_el is not False and submits == 0: warnings.warn('Form had a submit element provided, but it was not found', FormSubmitWarning, stacklevel=3) @property def request(self) -> requests.Request: """ Get the Request object from the form. """ if self.req is None: if self.method.lower() == 'get': self.req = requests.Request(self.method, self.url, params=self) else: self.req = requests.Request(self.method, self.url, data=self) self.req.headers.setdefault('Referer', if self.headers: self.req.headers.update(self.headers) return self.req
[docs] def submit(self, **kwargs) -> requests.Response: """ Submit the form and tell browser to be located to the new page. :param data_encoding: force encoding used to submit form data (defaults to the current page encoding) :type data_encoding: :class:`str` """ kwargs.setdefault('data_encoding', self.headers = kwargs.pop('headers', None) return, **kwargs)
[docs]class CsvPage(Page): """ Page which parses CSV files. """ DIALECT: ClassVar[str] = 'excel' """ Dialect given to the :mod:`csv` module. """ FMTPARAMS: ClassVar[Dict] = {} """ Parameters given to the :mod:`csv` module. """ ENCODING = 'utf-8' """ Encoding of the file. """ NEWLINES_HACK: ClassVar[bool] = True """ Convert all strange newlines to unix ones. """ HEADER: ClassVar[int | None] = None """ If not None, will consider the line represented by this index as a header. This means the rows will be also available as dictionaries. """
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> List: # We may need to temporarily convert content to utf-8 because csv # does not support Unicode. encoding = self.encoding if encoding == 'utf-16le': # If there is a BOM, decode('utf-16') will get rid of it content = content.decode('utf-16').encode('utf-8') encoding = 'utf-8' if self.NEWLINES_HACK: content = content.replace(b'\r\n', b'\n').replace(b'\r', b'\n') return self.parse(StringIO(content.decode(encoding)))
[docs] def parse(self, data: StringIO, encoding: str | None = None) -> List: """ Method called by the constructor of :class:`CsvPage` to parse the document. :param data: file stream :type data: :class:`BytesIO` :param encoding: if given, use it to decode cell strings :type encoding: :class:`str` """ reader = csv.reader(data, dialect=self.DIALECT, **self.FMTPARAMS) header = None drows: List = [] rows: List = [] for i, row in enumerate(reader): if self.HEADER and i+1 < self.HEADER: continue row = [c.strip() for c in row] if header is None and self.HEADER: header = row else: rows.append(row) if header: drow = {} for i, cell in enumerate(row): drow[header[i]] = cell drows.append(drow) return drows if header is not None else rows
[docs] def decode_row(self, row: List, encoding: str) -> List: """ Method called by :meth:`CsvPage.parse` to decode a row using the given encoding. """ if encoding: return [str(cell, encoding) for cell in row] else: return row
[docs]class JsonPage(Page): """ Json Page. Notes on JSON format: JSON must be UTF-8 encoded when used for open systems interchange ( So it can be safely assumed all JSON to be UTF-8. A little subtlety is that JSON Unicode surrogate escape sequence (used for characters > U+FFFF) are UTF-16 style, but that should be handled by libraries (some don't… Even if JSON is one of the simplest formats around…). """ ENCODING = 'utf-8-sig' @property def data(self) -> str: return self.response.text
[docs] def get(self, path: str, default: Any | None = None) -> Any: try: return next(self.path(path)) except StopIteration: return default
[docs] def path( self, path: str, context: str | Dict | List | None = None ) -> Iterator: return mini_jsonpath(context or self.doc, path)
[docs] def build_doc(self, text) -> Dict | List: return json.loads(text)
[docs]class XLSPage(Page): """ XLS Page. """ HEADER = None """ If not None, will consider the line represented by this index as a header. """ SHEET_INDEX = 0 """ Specify the index of the worksheet to use. """
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> List: return self.parse(content)
[docs] def parse(self, data: bytes) -> List: """ Method called by the constructor of :class:`XLSPage` to parse the document. """ # TODO make as a global import, and add to dependencies import xlrd wb = xlrd.open_workbook(file_contents=data) sh = wb.sheet_by_index(self.SHEET_INDEX) header = None drows: List = [] rows: List = [] for i in range(sh.nrows): if self.HEADER and i + 1 < self.HEADER: continue row = sh.row_values(i) if header is None and self.HEADER: header = [s.replace('/', '') for s in row] else: rows.append(row) if header: drow = {} for i, cell in enumerate(sh.row_values(i)): drow[header[i]] = cell drows.append(drow) return drows if header is not None else rows
[docs]class XMLPage(Page): """ XML Page. """
[docs] def detect_encoding(self) -> str | None: import re m ='<\?xml version="1.0" encoding="(.*)"\?>', if m: return self.normalize_encoding( return None
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> lxml.etree._Element: parser = lxml.etree.XMLParser(encoding=self.encoding, resolve_entities=False) return lxml.etree.parse(BytesIO(content), parser)
[docs]class RawPage(Page): """ Raw page where the "doc" attribute is the content string. """
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> bytes: return content
[docs]class HTMLPage(Page): """ HTML page. :param browser: browser used to go on the page :type browser: :class:`woob.browser.browsers.Browser` :param response: response object :type response: :class:`Response` :param params: optional dictionary containing parameters given to the page (see :class:`woob.browser.url.URL`) :type params: :class:`dict` :param encoding: optional parameter to force the encoding of the page :type encoding: :class:`str` """ FORM_CLASS: ClassVar[Type[Form]] = Form """ The class to instanciate when using :meth:`HTMLPage.get_form`. Default to :class:`Form`. """ REFRESH_MAX: ClassVar[int | None] = None """ When handling a "Refresh" meta header, the page considers it only if the sleep time in lesser than this value. Default value is None, means refreshes aren't handled. """ REFRESH_XPATH: ClassVar[str] = '//head//meta[lower-case(@http-equiv)="refresh"]' """ Default xpath, which is also the most commun, override it if needed """ ABSOLUTE_LINKS: ClassVar[bool] = False """ Make links URLs absolute. """ def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): self.setup_xpath_functions() super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def on_load(self): # Default on_load handle "Refresh" meta tag. self.handle_refresh()
[docs] def handle_refresh(self): if self.REFRESH_MAX is None: return for refresh in self.doc.xpath(self.REFRESH_XPATH): m = self.browser.REFRESH_RE.match(refresh.get('content', '')) if not m: continue url = urljoin(self.url, m.groupdict().get('url', None)) sleep = float(m.groupdict()['sleep']) if sleep <= self.REFRESH_MAX:'Redirecting to %s', url) self.browser.location(url) break else: self.logger.debug('Do not refresh to %s because %s > REFRESH_MAX(%s)' % (url, sleep, self.REFRESH_MAX))
[docs] @classmethod def setup_xpath_functions(cls): import lxml.html as html ns = html.etree.FunctionNamespace(None) cls.define_xpath_functions(ns)
[docs] @classmethod def define_xpath_functions(cls, ns): """ Define XPath functions on the given lxml function namespace. This method is called in constructor of :class:`HTMLPage` and can be overloaded by children classes to add extra functions. """ ns['lower-case'] = lambda context, args: ' '.join([s.lower() for s in args]) ns['replace'] = lambda context, args, old, new: ' '.join([s.replace(old, new) for s in args]) def has_class(context, *classes): """ This lxml extension allows to select by CSS class more easily >>> ns = html.etree.FunctionNamespace(None) >>> ns['has-class'] = has_class >>> root = html.etree.fromstring(''' ... <a> ... <b class="one first text">I</b> ... <b class="two text">LOVE</b> ... <b class="three text">CSS</b> ... </a> ... ''') >>> len(root.xpath('//b[has-class("text")]')) 3 >>> len(root.xpath('//b[has-class("one")]')) 1 >>> len(root.xpath('//b[has-class("text", "first")]')) 1 >>> len(root.xpath('//b[not(has-class("first"))]')) 2 >>> len(root.xpath('//b[has-class("not-exists")]')) 0 """ expressions = ' and '.join(["contains(concat(' ', normalize-space(@class), ' '), ' {0} ')".format(c) for c in classes]) xpath = 'self::*[@class and {0}]'.format(expressions) return bool(context.context_node.xpath(xpath)) def starts_with(context, text, prefix): if not isinstance(text, list): text = [text] return any(t.startswith(prefix) for t in text) def ends_with(context, text, suffix): if not isinstance(text, list): text = [text] return any(t.endswith(suffix) for t in text) def matches(context, text, pattern): reobj = re.compile(pattern) if not isinstance(text, list): text = [text] return any( for t in text) def first_non_empty(context, *nodes_list): for nodes in nodes_list: if nodes: return nodes return [] def distinct_values(context, text): return list(set(text)) ns['has-class'] = has_class ns['starts-with'] = starts_with ns['ends-with'] = ends_with ns['matches'] = matches ns['first-non-empty'] = first_non_empty ns['distinct-values'] = distinct_values
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> lxml.etree._ElementTree: """ Method to build the lxml document from response and given encoding. """ encoding = self.encoding if encoding == 'latin-1': encoding = 'latin1' if encoding: encoding = encoding.replace('iso8859_', 'iso8859-') import lxml.html as html parser = html.HTMLParser(encoding=encoding) doc = html.parse(BytesIO(content), parser, base_url=self.url) if self.ABSOLUTE_LINKS: doc.getroot().make_links_absolute(handle_failures='ignore') return doc
[docs] def detect_encoding(self) -> str: """ Look for encoding in the document "http-equiv" and "charset" meta nodes. """ encoding: str | None = self.encoding for content in self.doc.xpath('//head/meta[lower-case(@http-equiv)="content-type"]/@content'): # meta http-equiv=content-type content=... # Use request's method to get encoding from headers, so we simulate # an headers dict. encoding = self.normalize_encoding( requests.utils.get_encoding_from_headers( {'content-type': content} ) ) for charset in self.doc.xpath('//head/meta[@charset]/@charset'): # meta charset=... encoding = self.normalize_encoding(charset) if encoding == 'iso-8859-1' or not encoding: encoding = 'windows-1252' try: codecs.lookup(encoding) except LookupError: encoding = 'windows-1252' return encoding
[docs] def get_form( self, xpath: str = '//form', name: str | None = None, id: str | None = None, nr: int | None = None, submit: None | str | lxml.etree._Element = None ) -> Form: """ Get a :class:`Form` object from a selector. The form will be analyzed and its parameters extracted. In the case there is more than one "submit" input, only one of them should be chosen to generate the request. :param xpath: xpath string to select forms :type xpath: :class:`str` :param name: if supplied, select a form with the given name :type name: :class:`str` :param nr: if supplied, take the n+1 th selected form :type nr: :class:`int` :param submit: if supplied, xpath string to select the submit \ element from the form :type submit: :class:`str` :rtype: :class:`Form` :raises: :class:`FormNotFound` if no form is found """ i = 0 for el in self.doc.xpath(xpath): if name is not None and el.attrib.get('name', '') != name: continue if id is not None and el.attrib.get('id', '') != id: continue if nr is not None and i != nr: i += 1 continue if isinstance(submit, str): submit_el = el.xpath(submit)[0] else: submit_el = submit return self.FORM_CLASS(self, el, submit_el) raise FormNotFound()
[docs]class PartialHTMLPage(HTMLPage): """ HTML page for broken pages with multiple roots. This class should typically be used for requests which return only a part of a full document, to insert in another document. Such a sub-document can have multiple root tags, so this class is required in this case. """
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> lxml.etree._ElementTree: if content.strip(): # lxml raises a different error if content is whitespace-only try: return super().build_doc(content) except lxml.etree.XMLSyntaxError: pass content = b'<html>%s</html>' % content return super().build_doc(content)
[docs]class GWTPage(Page): """ GWT page where the "doc" attribute is a list More info about GWT protcol here : """
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: str | bytes) -> List: """ Reponse starts with "//" followed by "OK" or "EX". 2 last elements in list are protocol and flag. We need to read the list in reversed order. """ if isinstance(content, bytes): content = content.decode(self.encoding) assert content[2:4] == "OK" doc: List[Any] = [] array: List[Any] = [] for el in reversed(literal_eval(content[4:])[:-2]): # If we find an array, args after are indices or date if not array and isinstance(el, list): array = el elif array and isinstance(el, int) and len(array) >= el >= 1: doc.append(array[el - 1]) elif array and isinstance(el, str): doc.append(self.get_date(el)) return doc
[docs] def get_date(self, data) -> str: """ Get date from string """ base = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789_$" timestamp = sum(base.index(data[el]) * (len(base) ** (len(data) - el - 1)) for el in range(len(data))) return datetime.fromtimestamp(int(str(timestamp)[:10])).strftime('%d/%m/%Y')
[docs] def get_elements(self, type: str = "String") -> List: """ Get elements of specified type """ strings = [] for i, el in enumerate(self.doc): if i > 0 and ".%s" % type in self.doc[i - 1]: strings.append(el) return [string for string in strings if "java." not in string]
[docs]class PDFPage(Page): """ Parse a PDF and write raw data in the "doc" attribute as a string. """
[docs] def build_doc(self, content: bytes) -> bytes: try: doc = decompress_pdf(content) except OSError as e: raise ParseError(f'Make sure mupdf-tools is installed ({e})') return doc
[docs]class LoggedPage: """ A page that only logged users can reach. If we did not get a redirection for this page, we are sure that the login is still active. Do not use this class for page with mixed content (logged/anonymous) or for pages with a login form. """ logged: bool = True
[docs]class AbstractPageError(Exception): pass
[docs]class MetaPage(type): # we can remove this class as soon as we get rid of Abstract* def __new__(mcs, name, bases, dct): from import Module # here to avoid file wide circular dependency if name != 'AbstractPage' and AbstractPage in bases: warnings.warn('AbstractPage is deprecated and will be removed in woob 4.0. ' 'Use standard "from woob_modules.other_module import Page" instead.', DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2) parent_attr = dct.get('BROWSER_ATTR') if parent_attr: m = re.match(r'^[^.]+\.(.*)\.([^.]+)$', parent_attr) path, klass_name =, 2) module = importlib.import_module('woob_modules.%s.%s' % (dct['PARENT'], path)) browser_klass = getattr(module, klass_name) else: module = importlib.import_module('woob_modules.%s' % dct['PARENT']) for attrname in dir(module): attr = getattr(module, attrname) if isinstance(attr, type) and issubclass(attr, Module) and attr != Module: browser_klass = attr.BROWSER break url = getattr(browser_klass, dct['PARENT_URL']) klass = url.klass bases = tuple(klass if isinstance(base, mcs) else base for base in bases) return super().__new__(mcs, name, bases, dct)
[docs]class AbstractPage(metaclass=MetaPage): """ .. deprecated:: 3.4 Don't use this class, import woob_modules.other_module.etc instead """
[docs]class LoginPage:
[docs] def on_load(self): if not self.browser.logging_in: raise LoggedOut() super().on_load()